After this defeat, Aju asked Kublai, the Emperor of the Mongol Empire, for the powerful siege machines of the Ilkhanate. These Persian engineers built mangonels and trebuchets for the siege. Of this, the History of Song writes, "the noise was like a tremendous thunderclap, shaking the walls and ground, and the smoke filled up the heavens outside. In 1260 Kublai was elected Great Khan of the Mongols and founded the Yuan Dynasty in 1271. Around this time, the tide shifted; Li's ships drifted to the opposite direction, the north. Once the fire goes off it completely spews the rear pellet wad forth, and the sound is like a bomb that can be heard for five hundred or more paces.  Both gunpowder and the fierce fire oil were produced under the Arsenals Administration of the Song dynasty. Eventually they gave way and coalesced into a smaller number of dominant weapon types, notably gunpowder arrows, bombs, and guns. In a rare occurrence, the Song made a successful offensive on Jin forces and conducted a night assault using boats.  Elite crossbowmen were also valued as long-range snipers; such was the case when the Liao general Xiao Talin was picked off by a Song crossbow at the Battle of Shanzhou in 1004. Glass Crossguard (Jian Ge) of the Song Dynasty — Nanjing Museum (Photo by Dongmaiying). The Song commander "ordered that gunpowder arrows be shot from all sides, and wherever they struck, flames and smoke rose up in swirls, setting fire to several hundred vessels. They were repelled with the aid of fire arrows. General Introduction to Song Dynasty. , In 1131, Jin forces invaded Shaanxi but were repelled, in particular by a volley fire tactic implemented by general Wu Jie (吳 玠) and his younger brother Wu Lin (吳璘). Zhang was determined to capture the Song admiral, Zuo Tai. , In 1230, co-viative projectiles were added to fire lances. , In 1135, Qi captured Xiangyang, but Yue Fei retaliated and recaptured the lost territory. , On 18 February 1189, Emperor Xiaozong of Song abdicated to his son Zhao Dun, posthumously Emperor Guangzong of Song. Afterward, Song, Jin, and Mongol fought or allied in the next few years, when situations kept changing. Later on, shrapnel such as ceramics and bits of iron were added, but these didn't occlude the barrel, and were only swept along with the discharge rather than make use of windage. , In 1165, the Song and Jin agree to peace and a return to status quo. Their heads, their eyes, their cheeks were exploded to bits, and only one half [of the face] was left. Over a 20-year-period, he managed to secure the Song Dynasty’s borders. , In 1034, Li Yuanhao of the Tanguts raided Song dynasty, On 10 November 1038, Li Yuanhao declared himself Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia. The Mongol war machine moved south and in 1237 attacked the Song city of Anfeng (modern Shouxian, Anhui Province) "using gunpowder bombs [huo pao] to burn the [defensive] towers. The carton case rebounded and broke, scattering the lime to form a smoky fog which blinded the eyes of men and horses so that they could see nothing.  Zhong Xiang rebelled in Hunan and was not suppressed until 1135. , The use of enormous pontoon bridges in the Song era on at least one occasion was essential to victory. In 960, a military general of the Latter Zhou Dynasty (951 - 960) named Zhao Kuangyin launched a mutiny in Chenqiao County.  Chinese and Muslim engineers operated artillery and siege engines for the Mongol armies. , The Song dynasty did not model its military infrastructure and organization on the precedent of northern nomadic armies, such as the earlier Xianbei and later Mongols. However, after the beginning of Emperor Taizong of Song's reign (r. 15 November 976 – 8 May 997), military organization was localized to the commandery level for all practical troop movements, fortifications, and battles. Generals and commandery units were deliberately kept apart and unfamiliar with each other to prevent rebellion.  The Wujing Zongyao served as a repository of antiquated or fanciful weaponry, and this applied to gunpowder as well, suggesting that it had already been weaponized long before the invention of what would today be considered conventional firearms. How could a horse like this not be considered a good horse?  Perhaps as another point of military interest, the account of this battle also mentions that the Anfeng defenders were equipped with a type of small arrow to shoot through eye slits of Mongol armor, as normal arrows were too thick to penetrate.. tyrannical mode of government". When the Jin troops arrived, [Wu's] ambushers shot, and the many [enemy] were in chaos. , On 22 March 1276, Lin'an surrendered to the Mongols and Emperor Gong of Song was eventually moved to Dunhuang where he raised a family and became a monk.  In 1000 a soldier by the name of Tang Fu (唐福) also demonstrated his own designs of gunpowder arrows, gunpowder pots (a proto-bomb which spews fire), and gunpowder caltrops, for which he was richly rewarded as well. " Fortunately for the Song, Möngke Khan died in 1259 and the war would not continue until 1269 under the leadership of Kublai Khan, but when it did the Mongols came in full force. Such an army was still unable to successfully storm Song city walls, as seen in the 1274 Siege of Shayang. Before he went back to Mongol, he signed an unfair treaty with Song, including Song respecting Mongolia’s Khan as monarch and providing large numbers of tribute each year.  The character for lance, or spear (槍), has continued to refer to both the melee weapon and the firearm into modern China, perhaps as a reminder of its original form as simply a tube of gunpowder tied to a spear. However, only one year later, the Mongol Empire started to invade the Song Empire. He died on 12 August from a wound inflicted by a Song trebuchet, forcing Mongol forces to withdraw from Song territory. Heavy fog and rain obscured the approach of Li Heng's dawn attack. They were ultimately repelled. , In October 1142, the Song and Jin agreed to the Treaty of Shaoxing which stipulated that the Song must pay Jin an annual indemnity; the Huai River was settled as the boundary between the two states.  The Jin army retreated from Kaifeng after the Song promised to pay an annual indemnity. If not, how would they have known the way to strike at both of these places? Mu and her husband, however, enjoyed few peaceful days together. A double-ended rocket pod that carries 30 small poisoned rockets on each end for a total of 60 rockets. The important city of Xiangyang, the gateway to the Yangtze plain, which was defended by the Song general Cao Youwen, capitulated in 1236. Matthew Bennett. , According to a minor military official by the name of Zhao Wannian (趙萬年), thunderclap bombs were used again to great effect by the Song during the Jin siege of Xiangyang in 1206–1207. It was Mongol tradition that no royal blood should touch the earth; therefore many of their royal captives were executed by methods that did not break this taboo. The loyalists fought the Mongols in the mountainous Fujian–Guangdong–Jiangxi borderland. Other organizations such as the Armaments Office were also responsible for weapons production. , In the summer of 1256, Möngke Khan declared war on the Song, citing imprisonment of Mongol envoys as casus belli. The gray area is the later Timurid empire. Even the Khitans, who saw Yang Yanzhao as their biggest enemy, respectfully compared him to Mizar, the sixth star of the Big Dipper, and reverently called him “Yang the Sixth.” Alongside the rest of his family, Yang Yanzhao fought for his country until his death at 57. Instead, they developed a plan for a maritime siege, in order to starve the Song into submission.
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